Python pip install exception

exception 0.1.0

pip install exception Скопировать инструкции PIP

Выпущен: 16 июн. 2016 г.

Extract unique Python exceptions with their traceback from a log file.


Ссылки проекта



Лицензия: MIT License (MIT license)



  • Development Status
    • 2 — Pre-Alpha
  • Intended Audience
    • Developers
  • License
    • OSI Approved :: MIT License
  • Natural Language
    • English
  • Programming Language
    • Python :: 2
    • Python :: 2.6
    • Python :: 2.7
    • Python :: 3
    • Python :: 3.3
    • Python :: 3.4
    • Python :: 3.5

Описание проекта


Extract unique Python-Exceptions with their traceback from a log file.

The extraction logic here is heuristic and may fail you. Don’t depend on it for any life or death situations. Also, please submit feedback on how it could be improved!

Clone this repository and install with

This adds a utility called exception or exception.exe to your path.

To extract the Python tracebacks from a log called _logfile.txt_, run:

If you want to exclude certain exceptions, try:

$ exception -f logfile.txt -e ValueError,AttributeError

You can all pass multiple filenames:

$ exception -f logfile1.txt logfile2.txt

This would exclude would exclude any ValueError or AttributeError tracebacks from the output.

The tool can also read the log file from stdout, e.g.:

cat logfile.txt | exception -e ValueError


This package was created with Cookiecutter and the audreyr/cookiecutter-pypackage project template.


How to install modules with PIP (and fix it when it fails)

This is part of a series discussing everything required to get an all-encompassing grasp of the Python programming language in as short a time as possible. Whether you are a beginner or an expert, I intend for you to learn something new.

PIP is a powerful tool that everyone should know how to use. But everyone has also at some point been in the position where Python’s PIP has given them trouble and they have been lost as to how to proceed. I have picked up a number of methods of troubleshooting PIP that have been very successful for me.

How to use PIP

Installing modules to python is painfully easy. Simply open up your terminal:

  • Windows — Command Prompt (CMD)
  • MacOS — Terminal
  • Linux — Terminal (it depends…)

Now in your command line, type:

Sometimes, in MacOS and Linux, you may need to instead type:

(This will not work in Windows no matter how hard you try.)

Now if none of that works, that means you have a problem. So let’s try and fix that.

Troubleshooting PIP

Basic Stuff

When you are frustrated it is sometimes easy to forget to double check things. First make sure that you have installed Python. Assuming that, the first thing to do is to check if the module exists. The main way to do this is to go to PyPi and search for your package. If nothing comes up, make sure to do a quick google search to see if you are searching by the correct name. StackOverflow is your friend.

If you do find the module you need simply copy the command from the page and paste it into your terminal and away you may go.

If this still does not work, try one last thing before you continue onto the rest of the steps. Try typing:

This may work if you have multiple versions of python installed, one of them being Python3.

One special case you may find yourself in is that the python module used to exist and, for whatever reason, no longer is part of PIP. In this case there is but one solution I have found. This is to try and find a .whl or wheel package for the python module. I will be covering installing those kinds of files later in the article.

Trying to fix PIP

You can try upgrading pip with:

or you could just try and install pip from scratch by doing the following.

Copy the code from or save the file from the link. Then simply run the file with python. This should install pip for you and get it working. Make sure to try using pip3 if needed.

Conclusive solution

If all else fails, this has been a reliable way to get pip working on your python install. I would like to preface this with the fact that this shouldn’t be used consistently and I personally recommend simply reinstalling python after uninstalling all the current installations. The solution is to simply attempt one of the following commands:

This runs pip through python shell and is almost guaranteed to work. If this still does not work you should definitely uninstall all traces of Python before reinstalling Python3 from the Python website.

Installing wheel packages

You can install wheel packages using one of the following commands:


exceptiongroup 1.1.0

pip install exceptiongroup Скопировать инструкции PIP

Выпущен: 23 дек. 2022 г.

Backport of PEP 654 (exception groups)


Ссылки проекта



Лицензия: MIT License

Требует: Python >=3.7



  • Development Status
    • 5 — Production/Stable
  • Intended Audience
    • Developers
  • License
    • OSI Approved :: MIT License
  • Programming Language
    • Python
    • Python :: 3 :: Only
  • Typing
    • Typed
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Описание проекта

This is a backport of the BaseExceptionGroup and ExceptionGroup classes from Python 3.11.

It contains the following:

The exceptiongroup.BaseExceptionGroup and exceptiongroup.ExceptionGroup classes

A utility function ( exceptiongroup.catch() ) for catching exceptions possibly nested in an exception group

Patches to the TracebackException class that properly formats exception groups (installed on import)

An exception hook that handles formatting of exception groups through TracebackException (installed on import)

Special versions of some of the functions from the traceback module, modified to correctly handle exception groups even when monkey patching is disabled, or blocked by another custom exception hook:

If this package is imported on Python 3.11 or later, the built-in implementations of the exception group classes are used instead, TracebackException is not monkey patched and the exception hook won’t be installed.

See the standard library documentation for more information on exception groups.

Catching exceptions

Due to the lack of the except* syntax introduced by PEP 654 in earlier Python versions, you need to use exceptiongroup.catch() to catch exceptions that are potentially nested inside an exception group. This function returns a context manager that calls the given handler for any exceptions matching the sole argument.

The argument to catch() must be a dict (or any Mapping ) where each key is either an exception class or an iterable of exception classes. Each value must be a callable that takes a single positional argument. The handler will be called at most once, with an exception group as an argument which will contain all the exceptions that are any of the given types, or their subclasses. The exception group may contain nested groups containing more matching exceptions.

Thus, the following Python 3.11+ code:

would be written with this backport like this:

NOTE: Just like with except* , you cannot handle BaseExceptionGroup or ExceptionGroup with catch() .

Notes on monkey patching

To make exception groups render properly when an unhandled exception group is being printed out, this package does two things when it is imported on any Python version earlier than 3.11:

The traceback.TracebackException class is monkey patched to store extra information about exception groups (in __init__() ) and properly format them (in format() )

An exception hook is installed at sys.excepthook , provided that no other hook is already present. This hook causes the exception to be formatted using traceback.TracebackException rather than the built-in rendered.

If sys.exceptionhook is found to be set to something else than the default when exceptiongroup is imported, no monkeypatching is done at all.

To prevent the exception hook and patches from being installed, set the environment variable EXCEPTIONGROUP_NO_PATCH to 1 .

Formatting exception groups

Normally, the monkey patching applied by this library on import will cause exception groups to be printed properly in tracebacks. But in cases when the monkey patching is blocked by a third party exception hook, or monkey patching is explicitly disabled, you can still manually format exceptions using the special versions of the traceback functions, like format_exception() , listed at the top of this page. They work just like their counterparts in the traceback module, except that they use a separately patched subclass of TracebackException to perform the rendering.

Particularly in cases where a library installs its own exception hook, it is recommended to use these special versions to do the actual formatting of exceptions/tracebacks.


pip install#



Install packages from:

PyPI (and other indexes) using requirement specifiers.

VCS project urls.

Local project directories.

Local or remote source archives.

pip also supports installing from “requirements files”, which provide an easy way to specify a whole environment to be installed.


pip install has several stages:

Identify the base requirements. The user supplied arguments are processed here.

Resolve dependencies. What will be installed is determined here.

Build wheels. All the dependencies that can be are built into wheels.

Install the packages (and uninstall anything being upgraded/replaced).

Note that pip install prefers to leave the installed version as-is unless —upgrade is specified.

Argument Handling#

When looking at the items to be installed, pip checks what type of item each is, in the following order:

Project or archive URL.

Local directory (which must contain a , or pip will report an error).

Local file (a sdist or wheel format archive, following the naming conventions for those formats).

A requirement, as specified in PEP 440.

Each item identified is added to the set of requirements to be satisfied by the install.

Working Out the Name and Version#

For each candidate item, pip needs to know the project name and version. For wheels (identified by the .whl file extension) this can be obtained from the filename, as per the Wheel spec. For local directories, or explicitly specified sdist files, the egg_info command is used to determine the project metadata. For sdists located via an index, the filename is parsed for the name and project version (this is in theory slightly less reliable than using the egg_info command, but avoids downloading and processing unnecessary numbers of files).

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Any URL may use the #egg=name syntax (see VCS Support ) to explicitly state the project name.

Satisfying Requirements#

Once pip has the set of requirements to satisfy, it chooses which version of each requirement to install using the simple rule that the latest version that satisfies the given constraints will be installed (but see here for an exception regarding pre-release versions). Where more than one source of the chosen version is available, it is assumed that any source is acceptable (as otherwise the versions would differ).

Obtaining information about what was installed#

The install command has a —report option that will generate a JSON report of what pip has installed. In combination with the —dry-run and —ignore-installed it can be used to resolve a set of requirements without actually installing them.

The report can be written to a file, or to standard output (using —report — in combination with —quiet ).

The format of the JSON report is described in Installation Report .

Installation Order#

This section is only about installation order of runtime dependencies, and does not apply to build dependencies (those are specified using PEP 518).

As of v6.1.0, pip installs dependencies before their dependents, i.e. in “topological order.” This is the only commitment pip currently makes related to order. While it may be coincidentally true that pip will install things in the order of the install arguments or in the order of the items in a requirements file, this is not a promise.

In the event of a dependency cycle (aka “circular dependency”), the current implementation (which might possibly change later) has it such that the first encountered member of the cycle is installed last.

For instance, if quux depends on foo which depends on bar which depends on baz, which depends on foo:

Prior to v6.1.0, pip made no commitments about install order.

The decision to install topologically is based on the principle that installations should proceed in a way that leaves the environment usable at each step. This has two main practical benefits:

Concurrent use of the environment during the install is more likely to work.

A failed install is less likely to leave a broken environment. Although pip would like to support failure rollbacks eventually, in the mean time, this is an improvement.

Although the new install order is not intended to replace (and does not replace) the use of setup_requires to declare build dependencies, it may help certain projects install from sdist (that might previously fail) that fit the following profile:

They have build dependencies that are also declared as install dependencies using install_requires .

python egg_info works without their build dependencies being installed.

For whatever reason, they don’t or won’t declare their build dependencies using setup_requires .

Requirements File Format

This section has been moved to Requirements File Format .

This section has been moved to Requirement Specifiers .

Pre-release Versions#

Starting with v1.4, pip will only install stable versions as specified by pre-releases by default. If a version cannot be parsed as a compliant PEP 440 version then it is assumed to be a pre-release.

If a Requirement specifier includes a pre-release or development version (e.g. >=0.0.dev0 ) then pip will allow pre-release and development versions for that requirement. This does not include the != flag.

The pip install command also supports a —pre flag that enables installation of pre-releases and development releases.

This is now covered in VCS Support .

Finding Packages#

pip searches for packages on PyPI using the HTTP simple interface, which is documented here and there.

pip offers a number of package index options for modifying how packages are found.

pip looks for packages in a number of places: on PyPI (if not disabled via —no-index ), in the local filesystem, and in any additional repositories specified via —find-links or —index-url . There is no ordering in the locations that are searched. Rather they are all checked, and the “best” match for the requirements (in terms of version number — see PEP 440 for details) is selected.

SSL Certificate Verification

This is now covered in HTTPS Certificates .

This is now covered in Caching .

This is now covered in Caching .

Hash checking mode

This is now covered in Secure installs .

Local Project Installs

Build System Interface


Install from the given requirements file. This option can be used multiple times.

Constrain versions using the given constraints file. This option can be used multiple times.

Don’t install package dependencies.

Include pre-release and development versions. By default, pip only finds stable versions.

Install a project in editable mode (i.e. setuptools “develop mode”) from a local project path or a VCS url.

Don’t actually install anything, just print what would be. Can be used in combination with —ignore-installed to ‘resolve’ the requirements.

Install packages into . By default this will not replace existing files/folders in . Use —upgrade to replace existing packages in with new versions.

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Only use wheels compatible with

. Defaults to the platform of the running system. Use this option multiple times to specify multiple platforms supported by the target interpreter.

The Python interpreter version to use for wheel and “Requires-Python” compatibility checks. Defaults to a version derived from the running interpreter. The version can be specified using up to three dot-separated integers (e.g. “3” for 3.0.0, “3.7” for 3.7.0, or “3.7.3”). A major-minor version can also be given as a string without dots (e.g. “37” for 3.7.0).

Only use wheels compatible with Python implementation , e.g. ‘pp’, ‘jy’, ‘cp’, or ‘ip’. If not specified, then the current interpreter implementation is used. Use ‘py’ to force implementation-agnostic wheels.

Install to the Python user install directory for your platform. Typically

/.local/, or %APPDATA%Python on Windows. (See the Python documentation for site.USER_BASE for full details.)

Install everything relative to this alternate root directory.

Installation prefix where lib, bin and other top-level folders are placed

Directory to check out editable projects into. The default in a virtualenv is “ /src”. The default for global installs is “ /src”.

Upgrade all specified packages to the newest available version. The handling of dependencies depends on the upgrade-strategy used.

Determines how dependency upgrading should be handled [default: only-if-needed]. “eager” — dependencies are upgraded regardless of whether the currently installed version satisfies the requirements of the upgraded package(s). “only-if-needed” — are upgraded only when they do not satisfy the requirements of the upgraded package(s).

Reinstall all packages even if they are already up-to-date.

Ignore the installed packages, overwriting them. This can break your system if the existing package is of a different version or was installed with a different package manager!

Ignore the Requires-Python information.

Disable isolation when building a modern source distribution. Build dependencies specified by PEP 518 must be already installed if this option is used.

Use PEP 517 for building source distributions (use —no-use-pep517 to force legacy behaviour).

Check the build dependencies when PEP517 is used.

Configuration settings to be passed to the PEP 517 build backend. Settings take the form KEY=VALUE. Use multiple —config-settings options to pass multiple keys to the backend.

Extra arguments to be supplied to the install command (use like —install-option=”—install-scripts=/usr/local/bin”). Use multiple —install-option options to pass multiple options to install. If you are using an option with a directory path, be sure to use absolute path.

Extra global options to be supplied to the call before the install or bdist_wheel command.

Compile Python source files to bytecode

Do not compile Python source files to bytecode

Do not warn when installing scripts outside PATH

Do not warn about broken dependencies

Do not use binary packages. Can be supplied multiple times, and each time adds to the existing value. Accepts either “:all:” to disable all binary packages, “:none:” to empty the set (notice the colons), or one or more package names with commas between them (no colons). Note that some packages are tricky to compile and may fail to install when this option is used on them.

Do not use source packages. Can be supplied multiple times, and each time adds to the existing value. Accepts either “:all:” to disable all source packages, “:none:” to empty the set, or one or more package names with commas between them. Packages without binary distributions will fail to install when this option is used on them.

Prefer older binary packages over newer source packages.

Require a hash to check each requirement against, for repeatable installs. This option is implied when any package in a requirements file has a —hash option.

Specify whether the progress bar should be used [on, off] (default: on)

Action if pip is run as a root user. By default, a warning message is shown.

Generate a JSON file describing what pip did to install the provided requirements. Can be used in combination with —dry-run and —ignore-installed to ‘resolve’ the requirements. When — is used as file name it writes to stdout. When writing to stdout, please combine with the —quiet option to avoid mixing pip logging output with JSON output.

Don’t clean up build directories.

Base URL of the Python Package Index (default This should point to a repository compliant with PEP 503 (the simple repository API) or a local directory laid out in the same format.

Extra URLs of package indexes to use in addition to —index-url. Should follow the same rules as —index-url.

Ignore package index (only looking at —find-links URLs instead).

If a URL or path to an html file, then parse for links to archives such as sdist (.tar.gz) or wheel (.whl) files. If a local path or file:// URL that’s a directory, then look for archives in the directory listing. Links to VCS project URLs are not supported.


Install SomePackage and its dependencies from PyPI using Requirement Specifiers


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